sustainable development
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The selection and use of building materials relating to the moladi construction process is considered a crucial aspect in determining the environmental sustainability of the moladi technology. Although the calculation of embodied energy is a complex matter and differs from region to region, building materials used in the moladi construction process have been carefully considered according to the initial and recurring embodied energy that is used or expended during the life cycle and operation of each material. Some additional, but notable, factors which affect the overall energy consumption of a structure - and which are often mismanaged within the affordable housing industry - is the requirement for nonessential transportation, wasteful packaging, plentiful waste of materials resulting from processing and construction methods, and also poor dumping and disposal methods. Materials are rarely recycled or even reused and poor workmanship, the utilization of substandard materials and the use of materials and components which have a dissimilar and inconsistent durability, leaves the home owner with a high maintenance home which requires frequent repair and even large scale restoration. Lastly, passive design principles for the appropriate climate which helps to minimize the energy required to heat, cool, ventilate and light a building responsibly are largely ignored in favour of a cheaper initial cost outlay. These factors are taken into account to ensure that moladi  buildings provide environmental value by challenging members of the construction industry who are quick to ignore the long term use and quality of a building in favour of the short term saving enjoyed by the developer. The calculation of the embodied energy in building materials, or their life-cycle assessment, takes into account the following aspects; 1. The extraction and processing of raw materials 2. The manufacturing, packaging and transportation of the product 3. The maintenance of such a product after installation or positioning 4. The possibility of the recycling and reuse of the product 5. The final disposal of the product moladi makes use of lower energy materials, such as sand, gravel and light- weight concrete within the local community. Plastic, the material used for the moladi formwork, has a higher energy content, but conserves energy and resources due to the fact that it is reused, recycled, is lightweight and long lasting, which requires very little maintenance. Of the materials used in moladi homes, steel has the highest embodied en- ergy rating of 44.66MJ/kg. However, steel is 100% recyclable and at the end of the buildings lifespan, can be removed from the building with relative ease for recycling. The steel reinforcing bars are essential for ensuring that moladi  homes are durable and structurally sound to ensure that the home owner has a safe and sturdy home which can withstand external forces. Plastic, the mat- erial used for the moladi formwork, has the second highest energy rating of moladi building materials at 43.03MJ/kg. The formwork however conserves energy due to the fact that it is durable and does not require maintenance. The formwork is re-used many times until it is eventually recycled into other durable household consumer products and construction components. moladi utilizes a closed- loop policy with its plastic formwork so that none of the material goes to waste. The moladi mortar mix, has the lowest initial embodied energy rating, which is 1.4 MJ/kg. The operational energy of the mortar is further reduced by eliminating excessive labour demands during the application of the mortar and ensuring that the resulting superstructure is constructed efficiently and in an optimized manner. The volume of moladi mortar mix is accurately calculated to ensure that no excess material is wasted. The durability and longevity of the resulting structure requires minimal maintenance or repair work during the life of the building. Clay brick, which is 5.12 MJ/kg, polystyrene, which is 117 MJ/kg, cement plaster which is an average of 3.24 MJ/kg and Aluminium at 227 MJ/kg are other common building materials utilized in other types of construction methods which may be comparable to that of moladi building materials. All materials used in the construction of moladi homes, other than the formwork, are sourced and supplied from within the local community. Specifying criteria is critical in that the fixtures, fittings and service systems installed in a moladi structure have a durability term similar to that of the overall life expectancy of the building. Other than contributing to the local economy, this practice drastically reduces the need for additional and unnecessary transport and handling of goods and building materials. By reducing the number of operations required during the successful construction process means that there is a less chance of the occurrence of errors, waste and rework. This follows from the same logic that the fewer the number of operations, the higher the quality of the product, resulting in a predictive timeline and ultimately cost savings. The moladi method of construction has been designed to efficiently produce structures which have a long life, are durable and adaptable; homes which are considerate of the environmental impact as well as the needs of the home owner. The speed, affordability, quality, adaptability, ease of use, the use of sustainable local materials and the opportunity created to facilitate sweat equity are key advantages that would greatly improve the efficiency with which the world addresses the problems relating to the world’s poor, homeless and unskilled communities. The following points are key points to consider in achieving the most sustainable outcome with regards to building projects; Reduce building materials through more efficient layout and use of spaces. Reduce construction waste Specify products that use raw materials more efficiently Substitute plentiful resources for scarce resources Reuse building materials from demolished buildings Rehabilitate existing buildings for new uses Recycle new products from old
Key Advantages: Efficient layout and use of space Passive design principles Huge reduction of waste Efficient use of raw materials Substitute scarce materials Recycle new materials from old Reuse and amortisation of materials
MATERIAL ENERGY CONTENT KJ/kg Sand & Gravel 41.878 Wood 430.31 Lightweight concrete 2 186.44 Gypsum board 4 256.58 Brickwork 5 117.20 Cement 9 536.60 Glass 25 818.60 Plastic 43 031.00 Steel 44 659.20 Lead 60 243.40 Copper 68 849.60 Aluminum 240 741.00
The results for the embodied energy in common building materials, published by the American Institute of Architects, are as follows;